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Officer-Involved Shootings Have Impact on All Parties

The effects for police officers often vary depending on the circumstance and the disposition of the person involved.

On the night of June 5, an encounter between a teenager and a police officer led to an event that South San Francisco hadn't seen in at least 30 years: .

According to officials, a South San Francisco police officer on duty initiated contact with two juveniles at the Arco gas station on Westborough Boulevard because they were acting "in a suspicious manner." One complied with the officer and one, 15-year-old Derrick Gaines, ran away.

At some point during the chase, police say Gaines removed a handgun from his waistband, at which point the officer feared for his life and shot him. Gaines would later die at San Francisco General Hospital.

"It's always a tragic and traumatic event for all involved when a suspect's actions precipitate the use of deadly force," said Police Capt. Mike Brosnan, promising a "lengthy" investigation by the police department and the San Mateo County District Attorney's Office.

"It's bull-- that the cop thought his life was in danger,"Jose Diaz, 23, told the San Francisco Chronicle. "Come on, it's a 15-year-old kid with a handgun. He's a cop."

His friend Luis Gomez, 19, added, "Just because they got a badge on, they think they can do whatever they want."

For the victim's family, , and many questions seeking answers after a shooting.

For the officer involved, who has but a split second to decide if deadly force is necessary, the immediate future can also be difficult.

San Mateo County District Attorney Steve Wagstaffe recalled an incident in Menlo Park.

"There was a case, several years ago, where an officer just wasn't able to come back to work. He retired out," said Wagstaffe, "on the basis he was so emotionally distraught, he just simply did not want to be back in a position where he might, someday, be in the same shoes, and have to repeat the conduct."

One of the first things a police department will do—after all the preliminary questions have been answered—is send the officer involved to their agency psychiatrist.

"The days of Clint Eastwood and Dirty Harry; that's not life," Wagstaffe said.

A report commissioned by the National Institute of Justice in 2006 states "Prior research has found that many officers involved in shootings suffer from 'postshooting trauma'—a form of posttraumatic stress disorder that may include guilt, depression, and even suicidal thoughts. However, it may be that officers are more resilient than previously thought. One study has found that most suffer few long-term negative emotional or physical effects after shooting a suspect."

Among the specific findings included in the document, tallied after interviews with 80 officers involved in 113 incidents:

  • Most officers reported that just before and as they pulled the trigger on the suspect, they experienced a range of psychological, emotional, and physiological reactions that distorted time, distance, sight, and sound. (See Table 1 attached to this article.) Many officers found their recollection of the events of the shooting to be imperfect. In extreme cases, officers could not recall firing their guns. In the days, weeks, and months that follow a shooting, officers may suffer adverse reactions such as sleep interruption, anxiety, and depression.
  • Although some officers did not feel fear during a shooting, they still sensed imminent danger to themselves or others that met the standard for using deadly force.

  • Contrary to earlier research findings, few officers in the study suffered long-lasting negative effects following a shooting. Officers’ postshooting responses were influenced by the attitudes and actions of investigators, colleagues, family members, and friends; these reactions diminished markedly as attention and activity around the incident lessened. (See table 2.)

The unnamed South San Francisco officer involved in the shooting has spoken with an investigator from Wagstaffe's officer.

"He was cooperative," Wagstaffe said.

The District Attorney's office is meant to be an independent overseer in the investigation of the event. San Mateo County has never prosecuted a police officer that was involved in a shooting, but has taken at least one case to a grand jury for final deliberation. In the mid-1980's, a shooting at San Mateo's Hillsdale Shopping Center was moved out of the DA's office. Ultimately, the grand jury felt the shooting was justified.

For now, the South City officer has much to go through.

"When we're approaching the officer and we're examining this, he is a suspect," Wagstaffe said. "He has a right to an attorney."

In the normal course of events, a determination of guilt or innocence by the district attorney's office takes about 6-8 weeks. The South San Francisco Police Department will conduct its own internal investigation.

According to the National Institute of Justice report, "Expressions of support from fellow officers, detailed discussions about the incident with officers who had previously shot a suspect, and taking department-mandated time off following the shooting were associated with slight or moderate reductions in officers’ negative reactions.

Conversely, officers who felt a lack of support from their colleagues and supervisors or that aspects of the investigation into the shooting were unfair or unprofessional reported more severe and longer-lasting negative reactions following the shooting, particularly after 3 months."

"If I was the police chief," said Wagstaffe, "I would be concerned about any officer who felt it wasn't something to be horribly upset about."

The officer involved is on administrative leave.

Tess June 13, 2012 at 11:56 PM
Hope the officer involved takes the time and help he needs to get himself through this tragic situation.
Stu June 14, 2012 at 01:11 AM
Absolutely. And it doesn't help when ignorant people automatically criticize an officer's actions over the perpetrator before the facts are known. The officer is a human being with emotions and feelings. He/she, should not be vilified for doing what he/she has to do and is expected to do for the safety of the rest of us. The officer is presumed innocent, not the perpetrator carrying a gun, I mean come on, the media has noted that the fleeing kid possessed a firearm, had gang associations and other troubling issues, and people still love to criticize an officer, a good person among society who has devoted life to helping others. The pepetrator set the circumstances and created the officer's reaction. Let us be realistic - the officer's gun is controlled and is used as a defensive tool for protecting society and himself from dangerous people; people who are carrying guns to harm and prey on society. Why the hell do we allow officers to carry firearms to do their jobs if we're going to immediately treat them like the bad guy when they end up having to use it and not the armed person they use it against?
Angelique June 14, 2012 at 05:06 PM
"It's bull-- that the cop thought his life was in danger,"Jose Diaz, 23, told the San Francisco Chronicle. "Come on, it's a 15-year-old kid with a handgun. He's a cop." The above quote should be enough to shut these police critics up! Apparently they understand the 15 yr old had a gun now they just need to listen to their own words! A 15 yr old had a gun!!!! Hello?!?! That's why he got shot! End of story. Loaded or not, anyone else with a gun, would of shot him too! Including the so called gang he was trying to protect himself from! He had a gun, NOONE is going to wait to find out how old he is, whether it was loaded, whether it's real or not, he made a very poor decision and the adults in his life should have made a better effort to direct him and if they knew he carried that, they are just as much at fault for his death!
Eso R. June 15, 2012 at 04:46 AM
I highly recommend reading the last chapter in Malcolm Gladwell's "Blink," titled Seven Seconds in the Bronx. While it is not a replicated situation of the one that occurred in South City, it sheds light on officer-involved shootings that demand rapid judgment in microseconds. What feeds that judgment, be it bias, age, lighting, etc. - all of it goes into play. Take the time to read it. It's much more complicated.
Jim C June 15, 2012 at 05:46 AM
Completely agree. It's amazing to me how so many young people have posted so many ignorant thoughts. I feel sorry for them. Drug dealers and gang bangers start spreading lies about bad cops and their mothers and fathers buy into it because their little angels couldn't have done anything wrong...and so the crap spreads throughout the community...and eventually these young people just eat it up, without questioning it. I'm not naive, cops aren't perfect. There are some bad apples, but they are few and far between.
Ernesto megunia June 17, 2012 at 08:45 AM
I agree with angelique but also i would say people exaggerate about cops being bad. but personally i have learned that some cops will take advantage of these gang members and violate their constitutional right for example their 4th amendment right. very few cops don't take advantage of their power
Frisco Scooter Trash June 17, 2012 at 01:26 PM
A gun in the hands of anyone who is "not a cop" means that person is guilty and can be executed on sight? Do you really want to live in that world?
frank June 18, 2012 at 02:26 AM
Ask the 4 DEAD cops in Oakland who DID NOT shoot first and waited before shooting back.... 3 years ago, they are dead. Any more questions? You really want to live in that world ?
Jim C June 18, 2012 at 04:35 AM
I think it's unfair that you minimize the idea of someone having a gun in his/her hands. Whether it's loaded or not, whether it's a realistic toy or the real thing, it's NOT OK. And if they do carry, they pretty much deserve whatever happens to them, although I would pray that nobody gets hurt. And your use of the term "executed" is inflammatory. Cops are people, not super heroes. They're tasked with doing some of the hardest work in our society, dealing with lowlifes on a daily basis, knowing that a certain percentage of those lowlifes would shoot them if the chance presents itself. If they see a gun, they have a right to feel threatened. And if it goes beyond just seeing a gun and someone makes a move to grab the gun, I have no problem with the cop shooting before said gun is actually pointed at him/her. This is not "execution", this is self-defense. Bottom line, tell your friends, teach your children...it's NOT OK TO CARRY WEAPONS!
Jackiejo Jo July 12, 2012 at 06:17 AM
No notice was given nor eviction case filed... WARN THE PEOPLE!!!!!! Heard round the world!! Police do not work for the law. They don't protect the people. They are lawless, unresponsive and there is no justice working in this system. Cops BREAK into YOUR building where YOU lease... Destroy YOUR property as a leaser. The anonymous and all 99% are called to respond. She pays rent, like any renter... All her property was destroyed. Building was forcefully taken... by the police? Without warning... Thrown out with no eviction, no court process, removed from residence and business after being there for years, and all property was destroyed. What if this happened to you???? When We Got back with the Lease, and the 1/2 Deed to the building the so-called Paperwork, the police department of South San Francisco had already closed her building. You need a sheriff they cannot just break in at any time. The city and cops can't do this. It reminds me of Creedy's England in the movie, "V for Vendetta." Rogue cops and need to be brought to Justice. This system is not working for us. WARN THE PEOPLE!!!!!! Share widely.

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